The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey: Circumgalactic medium pollution and gas mixing by tidal stripping in a merging system at z ∼4.57

M. Ginolfi*, G. C. Jones, M. Béthermin, A. Faisst, B. C. Lemaux, D. Schaerer, Y. Fudamoto, P. Oesch, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, S. Fujimoto, S. Carniani, O. Le Fèvre, P. Cassata, J. D. Silverman, P. Capak, Lin Yan, S. Bardelli, O. Cucciati, R. Gal, C. GruppioniN. P. Hathi, L. Lubin, R. Maiolino, L. Morselli, D. Pelliccia, M. Talia, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


We present ALMA observations of a merging system at z ∼ 4.57, observed as a part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Combining ALMA [CII]158μm and far-infrared continuum data with multi-wavelength ancillary data, we find that the system is composed of two massive (M∗ 1010M·) star-forming galaxies experiencing a major merger (stellar mass ratio rmass 0.9) at close spatial (∼13 kpc; projected) and velocity (Δv < 300kms-1) separations, and two additional faint narrow [CII]-emitting satellites. The overall system belongs to a larger scale protocluster environment and is coincident to one of its overdensity peaks. Additionally, ALMA reveals the presence of [CII] emission arising from a circumgalactic gas structure, extending up to a diameter-scale of ∼30 kpc. Our morpho-spectral decomposition analysis shows that about 50% of the total flux resides between the individual galaxy components, in a metal-enriched gaseous envelope characterised by a disturbed morphology and complex kinematics. Similarly to observations of shock-excited [CII] emitted from tidal tails in local groups, our results can be interpreted as a possible signature of interstellar gas stripped by strong gravitational interactions, with a possible contribution from material ejected by galactic outflows and emission triggered by star formation in small faint satellites. Our findings suggest that mergers could be an efficient mechanism of gas mixing in the circumgalactic medium around high-z galaxies, and thus play a key role in the galaxy baryon cycle at early epochs.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA7
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Galaxies: ISM
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: formation
  • Galaxies: high-redshift
  • Galaxies: interactions
  • Intergalactic medium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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