The consolidation of nanomedicine

Raphael Zingg*, Marius Fischer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Over the past two decades, nanomedicine has grown steadily, however, without inducing a palpable shift in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases so far. While this may simply be a consequence of the slow, incremental nature that characterizes many modern technologies, this article posits that there is another set of significant factors harboring explanatory power. Uncertainties concerning safety, regulatory, and ethical requirements may have prompted innovators to stay close to the known and approved, eventually at the cost of innovating in unexplored alleys. Network analysis of all nanomedicine patents in the United States reveals that nanomedicine has indeed rather consolidated than expanded. We detail a set of recommendations that would reduce the uncertainty prevailing in nanomedicine and could contribute to pushing new boundaries. This article is categorized under: Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Regulatory and Policy Issues in Nanomedicine.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1569
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov 1


  • nanomedicine innovation
  • network analysis
  • patent citations
  • regulatory uncertainty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering


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