The effects of repetition and dual-task on the output monitoring errors

Eriko Sugimori*, Masashi Nakanishi, Hidetsugu Komeda, Kohei Tsunemi, Takashi Kusumi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We investigated output-monitoring errors in a modified source-monitoring paradigm. Unlike the traditional paradigm that involves two phases, learning and monitoring, the modified paradigm involves three phases, learning, enactment, and monitoring. Three experiments produced two major findings. First, compared with the traditional paradigm, the modified paradigm produced fewer monitoring errors. Second, performing a dual-task during the enactment phase increased monitoring errors for the items that participants repeatedly enacted during the learning phase. In contrast, performing a dual-task during the learning phase did not influence monitoring errors. It only decreased the number of items that were enacted during the enactment phase. We concluded that monitoring errors are more likely to occur (a) when the modality of items matches between the learning and enactment phases (i.e., items are enacted during both phases), and (b) when a dual-task increases processing demands during the enactment phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-251
Number of pages8
JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Aug
Externally publishedYes


  • Enactment
  • Image
  • Metacognition
  • Output-monitoring
  • Source-monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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