The inevitability of the bio-molecules: Five nitrogenous bases and twenty amino acids

Ken Naitoh*, Kenji Hashimoto, Hiromi Inoue

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Living beings, which are in a quasi-stable condition (meta-stable) between unstable and neutrally stable, use only five types of nitrogenous bases and 20 amino acids selected naturally. A first-order approximation of the momentum equation derived based on the cyto-fluid dynamic theory reveals the reason why the molecular weight of purines and pyrimidines among the nitrogenous bases varies by only about 1. 5 times, although the variation principle for the energy conservation law cannot do so. Here, we take a higher order of the Taylor series for the unified momentum equation describing the deformation motions of biological molecules. Even-numbered terms such as the second and fourth show no other quasi-stable size ratios. However, odd-numbered terms result in other quasi-stable ratios. The three-fold variation of the molecular weights of amino acids will come from the third term of the Taylor series.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)407-410
Number of pages4
JournalArtificial Life and Robotics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Dec


  • Amino acids
  • Asymmetry
  • Cyto-fluid dynamics
  • Nitrogenous base

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Artificial Intelligence


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