The lhcf detector at the cern large hadron collider

O. Adriani, L. Bonechi, M. Bongi, G. Castellini, R. D'Alessandro, D. A. Faus, K. Fukui, M. Grandi, M. Haguenauer, Y. Itow*, K. Kasahara, D. Macina, T. Mase, K. Masuda, Y. Matsubara, H. Menjo, M. Mizuishi, Y. Muraki, P. Papini, A. L. PerrotS. Ricciarini, T. Sako, Y. Shimizu, K. Taki, T. Tamura, Shoji Torii, A. Tricomi, W. C. Turner, J. Velasco, A. Viciani, H. Watanabe, K. Yoshida

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    136 Citations (Scopus)


    LHCf is an experiment dedicated to the measurement of neutral particles emitted in the very forward region of LHC collisions. The physics goal is to provide data for calibrating the hadron interaction models that are used in the study of Extremely High-Energy Cosmic-Rays. This is possible since the laboratory equivalent collision energy of LHC is 1017 eV. Two LHCf detectors, consisting of imaging calorimeters made of tungsten plates, plastic scintillator and position sensitive sensors, are installed at zero degree collision angle ±140 m from an interaction point (IP). Although the lateral dimensions of these calorimeters are very compact, ranging from 20 mmx20 mm to 40 mmx40 mm, the energy resolution is expected to be better than 6% and the position resolution better than 0.2 mm for γ-rays with energy from 100 GeV to 7 TeV. This has been confirmed by test beam results at the CERN SPS. These calorimeters can measure particles emitted in the pseudo rapidity range n >8.4. Detectors, data acquisition and electronics are optimized to operate during the early phase of the LHC commissioning with luminosity below 10 30 cm-2s-1. LHCf is expected to obtain data to compare with the major hadron interaction models within a week or so of operation at luminosity ∼ 1029 cm-2s-1. After ∼10 days of operation at luminosity <∼-41029cm -2s-1, the light output of the plastic scintillators is expected to degrade by ∼10% due to radiation damage. This degradation will be monitored and corrected for using calibration pulses from a laser.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberS08006
    JournalJournal of Instrumentation
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • Analysis and statistical methods
    • Calorimeters
    • Data acquisition concepts
    • Detector alignment and calibration methods
    • Detector control systems
    • Front-end electronics for detector readout
    • Gamma detectors
    • Overall mechanics design
    • Particle detectors
    • Particle identification methods
    • Particle tracking detectors
    • Pattern recognition, cluster finding, calibration and fitting methods
    • Photon detectors for UV, visible and IR photons
    • Radiation damage to detector materials
    • Scintillators and scintillating fibers and light guides
    • Scintillators, scintillation and light emission processes
    • Simulation methods and programs
    • Solid state detectors
    • Trigger concepts and systems

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Instrumentation
    • Mathematical Physics


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