The role of parental factors and the self in predicting positive L2 outcomes among Japanese learners of English

Maya Sugita-McEown*, Kristopher McEown

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The current study had two objectives: (a) to quantitatively investigate whether Japanese language learners of English have inclusive second language (L2) self-related motivations, and how inclusive L2 self-related motivations contribute to English learning effort and self-rated English ability, and (b) to qualitatively examine how Japanese learners of English incorporate parental expectations and values about English into their L2 self during each stage of their English learning experience, and how higher and lower English proficiency learners incorporate parental values and opinions into their L2 self. We found that an inclusive L2 self-related motivation explained the interaction between social/contextual factors and English learning effort or self-rated English ability. A gap was observed between higher and lower English proficiency groups regarding the degree of incorporating parental expectations, values, and feelings about English into their sense of L2 self. Having an inclusive L2 self successfully introduces different viewpoints into current self-related motivational frameworks within language learning contexts, which to date have only emphasised individual levels of self perspectives to the exclusion of inclusive self figures derived from social surroundings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)934-949
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Nov 26


  • Inclusive L2 self
  • ideal L2 self
  • identified regulation
  • intrinsic motivation
  • parental involvement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language


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