Thermal comfort and adaptation in semi-outdoor environments

Junta Nakano*, Shin Ichi Tanabe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

61 Citations (Scopus)


Designing semi-outdoor environments such as atria or open-style cafes is a popular technique in modern architecture to provide occupants with natural outdoor elements in an artificial environment. Occupants are likely to expect a thermal environment differing from the indoors, and thermal adaptation is expected to play a major role in achieving comfort. Seasonal field surveys were conducted in four semi-outdoor environments for short-term occupancy with different levels of environmental control. Observations were made on occupancy conditions and clothing adjustments. Sets of 2,248 questionnaires and corresponding thermal environmental data were also collected throughout the survey. Clothing adjustment was affected largely by outdoor temperature and less by the immediate thermal environment. Number of occupants and time of occupancy decreased following the daily mean air temperature decrease in non-air-conditioned semi-outdoor environments. Occupants in semi-outdoor environments were tolerant of a two to three times wider range of environmental conditions compared to that predicted by PPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543-553
Number of pages11
JournalASHRAE Transactions
Volume110 PART II
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Dec 1
EventTechnical and Symposium Papers - 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers - Nashville, TX, United States
Duration: 2004 Jun 262004 Jun 30

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering


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