Thermodynamics of Ca-CaF2 and Ca-CaCI2 systems for the dephosphorization of steel

N. Masumitsu*, K. Ito, R. J. Fruehan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Calcium is soluble in halide salts which can be used to remove phosphorus from steel as a phosphide ion. The activity and activity coefficient of calcium phosphide, and the equilibrium phosphorus distribution ratio between Ca-CaF2 and Ca-CaCl2 fluxes and pure solid iron were measured as a function of the Ca composition in the flux at 1350 °, 1400 °, and 1450 °. The Ca-Ca halide fluxes were equilibrated with pure solid iron and a Ag-Ca alloy in an iron crucible under an Ar atmosphere. The Ag-Ca alloy was used to maintain a constant chemical potential of calcium. Phosphorus distribution between between these fluxes and solid pure iron increased with increasing calcium activity and decreasing temperature. The activity coefficient of γCa 1.5 P was calculated to be 36.6 at 1350 ° and 11.0 at 1450 ° for a calcium activity of 0.2 (wt pct Ca = 2.5) in the Ca-CaF2; the activity coefficient increases with increasing Ca in the flux. In addition, the activity of Ca in the Ca-Ca halide fluxes was determined. The equilibrium phosphorus distribution ratio between Ca-Ca halide systems and molten chromium steel was calculated as functions of Cr and C contents of the metal and calcium activity in the flux at 1600 °C by using γCa 1.5 P obtained in the present work. This ratio was found to be about 20 for 18 pct Cr stainless steel at 1600 °.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-648
Number of pages6
JournalMetallurgical Transactions B
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1988 Jun
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)


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