Three-dimensional boltzmann hydro code for core collapse in massive stars. I. Special relativistic treatments

Hiroki Nagakura*, Kohsuke Sumiyoshi, Shoichi Yamada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a novel numerical method for solving multi-dimensional, special relativistic Boltzmann equations for neutrinos coupled with hydrodynamics equations. This method is meant to be applied to simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We handle special relativity in a non-conventional way, taking account of all orders of v/c. Consistent treatment of the advection and collision terms in the Boltzmann equations has been a challenge, which we overcome by employing two different energy grids: Lagrangian remapped and laboratory fixed grids. We conduct a series of basic tests and perform a one-dimensional simulation of core-collapse, bounce, and shock-stall for a 15 Mφ progenitor model with a minimum but essential set of microphysics. We demonstrate in the latter simulation that our new code is capable of handling all phases in core-collapse supernova. For comparison, a non-relativistic simulation is also conducted with the same code, and we show that they produce qualitatively wrong results in neutrino transfer. Finally, we discuss a possible incorporation of general relativistic effects into our method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number214
JournalAstrophysical Journal, Supplement Series
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • hydrodynamics
  • neutrinos
  • supernovae: general

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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