Three-dimensional dynamics of elbow and shoulder joint throwing motion in relation to throwing arm movement and injury in baseball

Tomohisa Miyanishi*, Yutaka Miyanaga, Tohru Fukubayashi, Naotaka Mamizuka, Norihisa Fujii, Michiyoshi Ae, Yasuo Kunugi, Morihiko Okada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This study was designed to clarify the causes of throwing injuries of the elbow and shoulder joints in baseball. Five varsity-skilled baseball players without pain in the elbow and shoulder joints were subjects for this study. They were fixed to a chair and asked to throw a baseball using three different throwing arm movements (T0, T45, and T90). These movements were filmed using three-dimensional DLT videography. Linked rigid-body segment inverse dynamics were then employed to determine resultant joint force and torque at the elbow and shoulder joints. Peak varus torque at the elbow joint for T90 was less than for the other movements during the acceleration phase. In the follow-through phase, however, a large anterior shear force (70 N) at the elbow, for elbow extension, was present for T90. These results indicate that T90 was a high risk movement which leads to extension injuries rather than medial tension injuries. After the ball release, a large superior shear force (118 N) at the shoulder joint was present in all movements. This superior force may result from the subacromial impingement syndrome, except for critical zones of impingement caused by the different throwing arm movements. These findings suggest that the mechanisms of throwing arm injuries are closely related to differences in throwing arm movements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-596
Number of pages14
JournalJapanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1999 Oct
Externally publishedYes


  • Baseball
  • Link-segment dynamics
  • Three-dimensional videography
  • Throwing arm movements
  • Throwing injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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