Time-series primitive static states for detailing work state and flow of human-operated work machine

Mitsuhiro Kamezaki*, Hiroyasu Iwata, Shigeki Sugano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper proposes a quantification method for a comprehensive work flow in construction work for describing work states in more detail on the basis of analyzing state transitions of primitive static states (PSS), which consist of 16 symbolic work states defined by using on-off state of the lever operations and joint loads for the manipulator and end-effector. On the basis of the state transition rules derived from a transition-condition analysis, practical state transitions (PST), which are common and frequent transitions in arbitrary construction work, are defined. PST can be classified into essential state transition (EST) or nonessential state transitions (NST). EST extracts common phases of work progress and estimates positional relations between a manipulator and an object. NST reveals wasted movements that degrade the efficiency and quality of work. To evaluate comprehensive work flows modeled by combining EST and NST, work-analysis experiments using our instrumented setup were conducted. Results indicate that all the PSS definitely changes on the basis of PST under various work conditions, and work analysis using EST and NST easily reveals work characteristics and untrained tasks related to wasted movements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1357-1374
Number of pages18
JournalAdvanced Robotics
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct


  • Construction machinery
  • comprehensive work flow
  • state transition
  • work analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications


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