Ultra-high-throughput VLSI architecture of H.265/HEVC CABAC encoder for UHDTV applications

Dajiang Zhou, Jinjia Zhou, Wei Fei, Satoshi Goto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Ultra high definition television (UHDTV) imposes extremely high throughput requirement on video encoders based on High Efficiency Video Coding (H.265/HEVC) and Advanced Video Coding (H.264/AVC) standards. Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is the entropy coding component of these standards. In very-large-scale integration implementation, CABAC has known difficulties in being effectively pipelined and parallelized, due to the critical bin-to-bin data dependencies in its algorithm. This paper addresses the throughput requirement of CABAC encoding for UHDTV applications. The proposed optimizations including prenormalization, hybrid path coverage and lookahead rLPS to reduce the critical path delay of binary arithmetic encoding (BAE) by exploiting the incompleteness of data dependencies in rLPS updating. Meanwhile, the number of bins BAE delivers per clock cycle is increased by the proposed bypass bin splitting technique. The context modeling and binarization components are also optimized. As a result, our CABAC encoder delivers an average of 4.37 bins per clock cycle. Its maximum clock frequency reaches 420 MHz when synthesized in 90 nm. The corresponding overall throughput is 1836 Mbin/s that is 62.5% higher than the state-of-the-art architecture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6851145
Pages (from-to)497-507
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 1


  • Advanced Video Coding (AVC)
  • contextadaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC)
  • entropy coding
  • H.264
  • H.265
  • High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC)
  • Super Hi-Vision
  • ultra high definition
  • ultra high definition television (UHDTV)
  • very-large-scale integration (VLSI)
  • video encoder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Media Technology


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