Uneven Peace Infiltration: Two Case Studies of Rebel-Led Community Peace Initiatives in the Bangsamoro

Megumi Kagawa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter explores how the framework of unevenly enacted national peace agreements (NPAs) infiltrated this “peace” into existing rebel-led local peace agreements in rebel-administered areas. It focuses on the national peace agreements (NPAs) between the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Government of the Philippines. Then, based on ground data collected first-hand in rebel communities, the case study depicts two inter-community peace agreements between MILF communities and non-rebel communities that were developed well before the NPAs. Where the rebel group developed “quasi-government”, how have the rebel communities applied the governance capacity to inter-community conflict resolution during their armed struggle? Can the liberal peacebuilding framework of the unevenly enacted NPAs enhance rebel-led community peace initiatives? Why could the rebel communities face systematic difficulties in managing inter-community conflict in post-NPA periods? This study illustrates transitional dilemmas for rebel communities and a blind spot of the liberal peacebuilding framework.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRethinking Political Violence
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameRethinking Political Violence
ISSN (Print)2752-8588
ISSN (Electronic)2752-8596


  • Bangsamoro
  • Hybrid peacebuilding
  • ISIS
  • The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Political Science and International Relations


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