Upgrading Voltage Control Method Based on Photovoltaic Penetration Rate

Satoru Akagi, Ryo Takahashi, Akihisa Kaneko, Masakazu Ito, Jun Yoshinaga, Yasuhiro Hayashi, Hiroshi Asano, Hiromi Konda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we propose a comprehensive scheme to determine a suitable method and timing for upgrading the voltage control method. Voltage control methods are expected to be upgraded in accordance with the photovoltaic (PV) penetration in distribution systems. The suitable method and timing detailed in this paper are based on the limit of the PV penetration rate, which is constrained by the regulated voltage deviation. The upgrade process involves moving the on-load tap changer (OLTC) control method from the conventional scalar line drop compensator (LDC) method to the vector LDC method or centralized control method. Then, a static var compensator (SVC) or step voltage regulator (SVR) is installed. The locations of the SVR and SVC are determined to maximize the PV penetration rate. The suitable method and timing are demonstrated using a general distribution system. In addition to the numerical simulations, experiments are performed using an active network system with energy resources. The experimental results are consistent with the numerical simulation results, thus validating the proposed scheme. The maximum PV penetration rate obtained using the OLTC control method is 55%. Whereas, the installation of the SVR and SVC increased the rate to 95% and 100%, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7801153
Pages (from-to)3994-4003
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sept


  • Line drop compensator (LDC)
  • on-load tap changer (OLTC)
  • photovoltaic (PV) system
  • static var compensator (SVC)
  • step voltage regulator (SVR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)


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