Valuing forest ecosystem services: Case study of a forest reserve in Japan

K. N. Ninan*, Makoto Inoue

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Forests ecosystems provide several intangible benefits which policy makers ignore since these values do not register in conventional markets or are difficult to measure. Drawing on results of a case study of a forest reserve in Japan, this paper suggests that the annual value of the ecosystem services provided by forests is not only worth millions of dollars, but also in per hectare terms much more than hitherto known. This value for the Oku Aizu forest reserve ranged US$ 1.427-1.482 billion or about US$ 17,016-17,671 per ha. If these are accounted for, then governments and societies faced with the development versus conservation dilemma can make more informed decisions and policies that will help conserve forests and the ecosystem services they provide, and thereby promote human well-being and sustainable development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-87
Number of pages10
JournalEcosystem Services
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Sept
Externally publishedYes


  • Economic valuation
  • Forest ecosystem services
  • Japan
  • Oku Aizu forest reserve

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Ecology
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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