Warm saline intermediate waters in the Cretaceous tropical Atlantic ocean

Oliver Friedrich*, Jochen Erbacher, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Paul A. Wilson, Henning Kuhnert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)


During the mid-Cretaceous period, the global subsurface oceans were relatively warm, but the origins of the high temperatures are debated. One hypothesis suggests that high sea levels and the continental configuration allowed high-salinity waters in low-latitude epicontinental shelf seas to sink and form deep-water masses. In another scenario, surface waters in high-latitude regions, the modern area of deep-water formation, were warmed through greenhouse forcing, which then propagated through deep-water circulation. Here, we use oxygen isotopes and Mg/Ca ratios from benthic foraminifera to reconstruct intermediate-water conditions in the tropical proto-Atlantic Ocean from 97 to 92 Myr ago. According to our reconstruction, intermediate-water temperatures ranged between 20 and 25° C, the warmest ever documented for depths of 500-1,000 m. Our record also reveals intervals of high-salinity conditions, which we suggest reflect an influx of saline water derived from epicontinental seas around the tropical proto-North Atlantic Ocean. Although derived from only one site, our data indicate the existence of warm, saline intermediate waters in this silled basin. This combination of warm saline intermediate waters and restricted palaeogeography probably acted as preconditioning factors for the prolonged period of anoxia and black-shale formation in the equatorial proto-North Atlantic Ocean during the Cretaceous period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-457
Number of pages5
JournalNature Geoscience
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Jul
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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