Within-day energy balance and metabolic suppression in male collegiate soccer players

Sihyung Lee, Kuniko Moto, Seungah Han, Taewoong Oh, Motoko Taguchi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Metabolic suppression due to relative energy deficiency can cause various physiological impairments in athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate within-day energy balance (WDEB) and the ratio between measured and predicted resting energy expenditure (REEratio) and to investigate the relationships between the markers of metabolic suppression. Ten male collegiate soccer players completed a 7-day food diary, physical activity, and heart rate records during the training and rest days. Energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) were analyzed to evaluate WDEB components. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and blood sampling was conducted for hormonal analysis. The REE was measured using the Douglas bag method and predicted using the DXA-predicted method to calculate the REEratio . Participants were categorized into the normal (REEratio ≥ 0.94, n = 5) and suppressed (REEratio < 0.94, n = 5) groups. There were no group differences in the components of WDEB, except diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), but EI was significantly higher in the normal group than in the suppressed group (7-day total: 3660 ± 347 vs. 3024 ± 491 kcal/day, p = 0.046 and rest days: 3772 ± 463 vs. 2796 ± 800 kcal/day, p = 0.046). Analysis of hormonal markers of metabolic suppression only showed a significant positive association between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and REEratio (r = 0.771, p = 0.009). The relationships between metabolic suppression and the markers of energy deficiency were inconclusive. There are possible associations of insufficient EI and IGF-1 levels with metabolic suppression, and further study is required to understand energy deficiency in male soccer players.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2644
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug


  • Metabolic suppression
  • Relative energy deficiency in sport
  • Resting energy expenditure
  • Within-day energy balance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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