We developed an automatic opening and closing chamber system (AOCC) based on an open-flow dynamic method (open-flow AOCC). The AOCC can be used during all four seasons, even at the surface of relatively deep snow. We compared the open-flow AOCC with two closed dynamic methods [the AOCC configured as a closed dynamic system (closed dynamic AOCC) and the LI-6400 system] under field conditions. The closed dynamic-AOCC and LI-6400 measurements were about 15.4% and 5.2% lower, respectively, than the values obtained with the open-flow AOCC. There was a significant difference in soil respiration rate between the open-flow AOCC and the closed dynamic AOCC system. In contrast, no significant difference in soil respiration rate was detected between the open-flow AOCC and the LI-6400 system. In the field, the open-flow AOCC permitted continuous long-term measurements under a range of temperature conditions and did a good job of reflecting the marked daily and seasonal variations in soil respiration as a function of soil temperature.
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