Purpose: To investigate the postoperative quality of life (QOL) in patients with proximal gastric cancer (PGC) or esophago-gastric junction cancer, a nationwide multi-institutional study (PGSAS NEXT trial) was conducted. Methods: Patients who had undergone radical resection more than 6 months previously were enrolled from 70 Japanese institutions between July 2018 and June 2020. The Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale (PGSAS)-45 questionnaire was distributed to eligible patients, and responses were collected by mail. The main outcome measures of the PGSAS-45 were then calculated and compared. Results: Questionnaires were retrieved from 1950 participants, and data from 300 patients who had undergone a proximal gastrectomy (PG) with esophagogastrostomy for PGC were analyzed. The mean esophageal reflux subscale value was 1.9 among the 276 patients who underwent an anti-reflux procedure, which was significantly better than the mean value (2.6) for the 21 patients who did not undergo an anti-reflux procedure (p = 0.002). The esophageal reflux subscale values were also compared among 3 major anti-reflux procedures: the double-flap technique (N = 153), the pseudo-fornix and/or His angle formation (N = 67), and fundoplication (N = 44); no statistically significant differences were observed. Conclusion: An anti-reflux procedure during esophagogastrostomy after PG for PGC is necessary to improve postoperative esophageal reflux symptoms, regardless of the type of procedure. Trial registration: The PGSAS NEXT study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR; registration number: 000032221).
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