Eyelid malignant melanoma (MM) is a rare disease with high mortality. Accurate diagnosis of such disease is important but challenging. In clinical practice, the diagnosis of MM is currently performed manually by pathologists, which is subjective and biased. Since the heavy manual annotation workload, most pathological whole slide image (WSI) datasets are only partially labeled (without region annotations), which cannot be directly used in supervised deep learning. For these reasons, it is of great practical significance to design a laborsaving and high data utilization diagnosis method. In this paper, a self-supervised learning (SSL) based framework for automatically detecting eyelid MM is proposed. The framework consists of a self-supervised model for detecting MM areas at the patch-level and a second model for classifying lesion types at the slide level. A squeeze-excitation (SE) attention structure and a feature-projection (FP) structure are integrated to boost learning on details of pathological images and improve model performance. In addition, this framework also provides visual heatmaps with high quality and reliability to highlight the likely areas of the lesion to assist the evaluation and diagnosis of the eyelid MM. Extensive experimental results on different datasets show that our proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art SSL and fully supervised methods at both patch and slide levels when only a subset of WSIs are annotated. It should be noted that our method is even comparable to supervised methods when all WSIs are fully annotated. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first SSL method for automatic diagnosis of MM at the eyelid and has a great potential impact on reducing the workload of human annotations in clinical practice.
|IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
|Accepted/In press - 2022
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