TY - JOUR

T1 - Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

AU - Heisenberg, Lavinia

AU - Kase, Ryotaro

AU - Tsujikawa, Shinji

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

PY - 2016/11/4

Y1 - 2016/11/4

N2 - In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where σ/H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio σ/H decreases with the decrease of v. As long as the conditions |σ| ≪ H and v2 ≪ φ2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (σ = 0 = v) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state wDE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so σ always decreases in time.

AB - In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where σ/H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio σ/H decreases with the decrease of v. As long as the conditions |σ| ≪ H and v2 ≪ φ2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (σ = 0 = v) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state wDE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so σ always decreases in time.

KW - Dark energy theory

KW - Gravity

KW - Modified gravity

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UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84996538222&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/008

DO - 10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/008

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84996538222

SN - 1475-7516

VL - 2016

JO - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

JF - Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

IS - 11

M1 - 008

ER -