Purpose: Deterioration of daily activities increases frailty risk. Most of the previous research has examined the association between frailty and specific activities; nevertheless, the diversity of daily activities is also important. Although the type, frequency, and evenness of daily activities have been proposed as indicators of activity diversity, the association between these indicators and frailty remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between activity diversity and frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 658 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years who participated in comprehensive health check-ups in 2018. Frailty was defined using the Japanese version of the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Three indicators, type, frequency, and evenness of daily activities, were used to assess activity diversity across one week. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, with frailty as the dependent variable and the three activity diversity indicators as independent variables. Socio-demographic, physical, and mental functioning factors were adjusted as covariates. Results: Of the 658 participants (median age: 72 years; age range: 65–91 years; 60.5% women), 27 (4.1%) met the criteria for frailty. The frail group had significantly lower scores for type, frequency, and evenness of daily activities, as well as Mini-Mental State Examination scores (all at p < 0.01). We found significant independent associations in all activity diversity indicators with frailty, in multiple logistic models. Conclusion: Activity diversity is independently associated with frailty in community-dwelling older adults.
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