Discovery of ultrafast myosin, its amino acid sequence, and structural features

Takeshi Haraguchi, Masanori Tamanaha, Kano Suzuki, Kohei Yoshimura, Takuma Imi, Motoki Tominaga, Hidetoshi Sakayama, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Takeshi Murata*, Kohji Ito*


研究成果: Article査読

7 被引用数 (Scopus)


Cytoplasmic streaming with extremely high velocity (∼70 μm s21) occurs in cells of the characean algae (Chara). Because cytoplasmic streaming is caused by myosin XI, it has been suggested that a myosin XI with a velocity of 70 μm s21, the fastest myosin measured so far, exists in Chara cells. However, the velocity of the previously cloned Chara corallina myosin XI (CcXI) was about 20 μm s21, one-third of the cytoplasmic streaming velocity in Chara. Recently, the genome sequence of Chara braunii has been published, revealing that this alga has four myosin XI genes. We cloned these four myosin XI (CbXI-1, 2, 3, and 4) and measured their velocities. While the velocities of CbXI-3 and CbXI-4 motor domains (MDs) were similar to that of CcXI MD, the velocities of CbXI-1 and CbXI-2 MDs were 3.2 times and 2.8 times faster than that of CcXI MD, respectively. The velocity of chimeric CbXI-1, a functional, full-length CbXI-1 construct, was 60 μm s21. These results suggest that CbXI-1 and CbXI-2 would be the main contributors to cytoplasmic streaming in Chara cells and show that these myosins are ultrafast myosins with a velocity 10 times faster than fast skeletal muscle myosins in animals. We also report an atomic structure (2.8-Å resolution) of myosin XI using X-ray crystallography. Based on this crystal structure and the recently published cryo-electron microscopy structure of acto-myosin XI at low resolution (4.3-Å), it appears that the actin-binding region contributes to the fast movement of Chara myosin XI. Mutation experiments of actin-binding surface loops support this hypothesis.

ジャーナルProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
出版ステータスPublished - 2022 2月 22

ASJC Scopus subject areas

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