Once a protoplanet becomes larger than about lunar size, it accumulates a significant atmosphere that surrounds the solid core. When a planetesimal approaches the protoplanet, it interacts with the atmosphere. If enough energy of the planetesimal is lost by gas drag of the atmosphere, it is captured in the atmosphere even if its original trajectory would not lead to a direct collision with the solid core of the protoplanet. This increases the collision rate, resulting in faster growth of the protoplanet. We have derived the analytical calculations for the collision rate, and calculated the structure of the atmosphere and the trajectories of the planetesimals in the atmosphere. As a result of their large gas drag, small planetesimals are easily captured, resulting in a large rate of collision with the protoplanet. A collision rate of a protoplanet of Earth size with a planetesimal of 100 m radius is, for example, enhanced by a factor of ∼10. These effects play an essential role in the study of formation of solid cores of gas giant planets by the core accretion model.
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