Work efficiency of unmanned construction is 40% lower than that of on-board operation because of lack of visual information. Despite previous researches to acquire external views using drones and image processing, finding out optimum and allowable camera placements on actual construction machinery for chosen scenario and machine has been difficult. This work therefore documents the derivation of optimum and allowable camera placements with skilled subjects and using an actual construction machinery for digging and releasing tasks. The experimental results indicate an optimum pan angle of 90°, allowable pan angles of 60°–90° and allowable tilt angles of >45° during digging, and allowable pan angles of 45°–135°, an optimum tilt angle of 90°, and allowable tilt angles of 60°–90° during releasing. These results can be referred to the camera placements for unmanned construction sites to improve work efficiency. We will derive the camera placements for other scenarios.
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