Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were investigated to assess the influence of secondary formation on atmospheric occurrences of oxy-PAHs associated with particulate matter in downtown Tokyo, Japan. The daily variation in concentration of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (1,8-NA) in summer 2007 was similar to that for 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NF), a representative secondary formed nitro-PAH, while the variation for benzanthrone (BA) was similar to PAHs. In addition, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) associated with airborne particulate matter decreased in the order of PAHs > BA > 9-fluorenone (9-FO) or 9,10-anthraquinone (9,10-AQ) > 1,8-NA with an increase in distance from the roadside, whereas 2-NF was constant. These results suggest that a considerable fraction of some oxy-PAHs such as 1,8-NA associated with airborne particulate matter in downtown Tokyo originates from atmospheric secondary formation.
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