Dietary ω3 fatty acids have important health benefits and exert their potent bioactivity through conversion to lipid mediators. Here, we demonstrate that microbiota play an essential role in the body’s use of dietary lipids for the control of inflammatory diseases. We found that amounts of 10-hydroxy-cis-12-cis-15-octadecadienoic acid (αHYA) and 10-oxo-cis-12-cis-15-octadecadienoic acid (αKetoA) increased in the feces and serum of specific-pathogen-free, but not germ-free, mice when they were maintained on a linseed oil diet, which is high in α-linolenic acid. Intake of αKetoA, but not αHYA, exerted anti-inflammatory properties through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-dependent pathway and ameliorated hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity by inhibiting the development of inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue through suppression of chemokine secretion from macrophages and inhibition of NF-κB activation in mice and cynomolgus macaques. Administering αKetoA also improved diabetic glucose intolerance by inhibiting adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis through decreased macrophage infiltration in adipose tissues and altering macrophage M1/M2 polarization in mice fed a high-fat diet. These results collectively indicate that αKetoA is a novel postbiotic derived from α-linolenic acid, which controls macrophage-associated inflammatory diseases and may have potential for developing therapeutic drugs as well as probiotic food products.
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