The real capacity of graphene and the lithium-storage process in graphite are two currently perplexing problems in the field of lithium ion batteries. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional bilayer graphene foam with few defects and a predominant Bernal stacking configuration, and systematically investigate its lithium-storage capacity, process, kinetics, and resistances. We clarify that lithium atoms can be stored only in the graphene interlayer and propose the first ever planar lithium-intercalation model for graphenic carbons. Corroborated by theoretical calculations, various physiochemical characterizations of the staged lithium bilayer graphene products further reveal the regular lithium-intercalation phenomena and thus fully illustrate this elementary lithium storage pattern of two-dimension. These findings not only make the commercial graphite the first electrode with clear lithium-storage process, but also guide the development of graphene materials in lithium ion batteries.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 化学 (全般)