In recent years, millimeter and terahertz waves have attracted significant attention owing to their potential applications in high-speed wireless communication. However, such waves are susceptible to being scattered from surfaces of surrounding objects because their wavelengths are short and sensitive to even minimal roughness. Therefore, using an electromagnetic wave scattering theory based on the stochastic integral, millimeter-wave scattering distributions from minimally rough surfaces such as stones were investigated in simulations and experiments. Finally, millimeter-wave scattering measurements were compared to experimental and simulation results.
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