Monoamines, insulin and the roles they play in associative learning in pond snails

Yuki Totani, Hitoshi Aonuma, Akira Oike, Takayuki Watanabe, Dai Hatakeyama, Manabu Sakakibara, Ken Lukowiak, Etsuro Ito*


研究成果: Review article査読

20 被引用数 (Scopus)


Molluscan gastropods have long been used for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. One such gastropod, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, exhibits long-term memory (LTM) following both classical and operant conditioning. Using Lymnaea, we have successfully elucidated cellular mechanisms of learning and memory utilizing an aversive classical conditioning procedure, conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Here, we present the behavioral changes following CTA training and show that the memory score depends on the duration of food deprivation. Then, we describe the relationship between the memory scores and the monoamine contents of the central nervous system (CNS). A comparison of learning capability in two different strains of Lymnaea, as well as the filial 1 (F1) cross from the two strains, presents how the memory scores are correlated in these populations with monoamine contents. Overall, when the memory scores are better, the monoamine contents of the CNS are lower. We also found that as the insulin content of the CNS decreases so does the monoamine contents which are correlated with higher memory scores. The present review deepens the relationship between monoamine and insulin contents with the memory score.

ジャーナルFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
出版ステータスPublished - 2019 4月 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 神経心理学および生理心理学
  • 認知神経科学
  • 行動神経科学


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