Bipolar resistance switching (BRS) behavior and the effects of atmosphere (air, vacuum, O 2 gas, or N 2 gas) on BRS behavior occurred in the top and bottom interfaces in the M (top electrode)/WO 3-x/Pt (bottom electrode) (M Pt, Au) devices were investigated. Stable BRS only can be obtained in the interface with Pt electrode. And, the top Pt/WO 3-x interface exhibited stable BRS only in an oxygen-rich atmosphere (air and O 2 gas). In contrast, the bottom WO 3-x/Pt interface showed stable BRS under any atmosphere. Based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement on Pt, Au/WO 3-x interfaces, it is identified that the oxygen migration process during resistance switching mainly occurs between the Pt/WO 3-x interface and Pt electrode.
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