The use of Raman spectroscopy for characterizing self-localized excitations (polarons, bipolarons and solitons) in conducting polymers is described. A methodology for identifying these excitations is proposed. The method includes two important points: (1) Raman measurements with not only visible but also near-infrared laser excitation; (2) spectral analysis based on the Raman spectra of radical ions, divalent ions and ions of oligomers. Applications of this method to Na-doped poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene) and Na-doped trans-polyacetylene are demonstrated.
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