Postprandial hyperglycemia increases the risk of mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, the gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes and cardio-vascular disease are known to be correlated. Currently, fasting blood glucose is the primary in-dex for the clinical diagnosis of diabetes; however, postprandial blood glucose is associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Therefore, the dynamic change in blood glucose levels under free-living conditions is considered an important and better marker than fasting glucose levels to study the relationship between glucose levels and microbiota. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting and postprandial glucose levels and microbiota under free-living conditions for one week in older adults. In addition, in order to clarify the relationship between blood glucose level and intestinal bacteria, postprandial 4-h AUC was calculated and the correlation with gut bacteria was investigated. As a result of the present study, we observed many of the most significant correlations between the gut bacteria and the peak glucose levels after dinner and the 4-h AUC after dinner. Together, these findings suggest that the individual pattern of microbiota may help to predict post-dinner hyperglycemia and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism, such as diabetes.
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