Background: Increased central arterial stiffness and/or decreased compliance reduces buffer function and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) pulsatility, which leads to increased cerebral microvascular damage, resulting in the augmentation of the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Resistancetrained men showed higher central arterial stiffness and lower arterial compliance than age-matched, sedentary men. This study examined the effect of increased central arterial stiffness and/or decreased arterial compliance on CBF pulsatility. Methods: The study participants included 31 young healthy men (15 resistancetrained men, aged 21 ± 1 years; and 16 controls, aged 23 ± 1 years). β-Stiffness index and arterial compliance were measured in the right carotid artery as index of central arterial stiffness and compliance, respectively. The pulsatility index (PI) was measured in the middle cerebral artery as index of CBF pulsatility. Results: β-Stiffness index and PI were significantly higher in the resistancetrained group than in the control group (β-stiffness index: 5.3 ± 0.3 vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 a.u., P < 0.05, PI: 0.80 ± 0.02 vs. 0.70 ± 0.02, P < 0.05). The resistance-trained group showed significantly lower arterial compliance than the control group (0.16 ± 0.01 vs. 0.23 ± 0.01 mm2/mm Hg, P < 0.05). Positive and negative correlations were observed between β-stiffness index and PI (r = 0.39, P < 0.05), and between arterial compliance and PI (r = -0.59, P < 0.05), respectively. Conclusions: The resistance-trained group showed higher central arterial stiffness and PI and lower arterial compliance. Central arterial stiffness and arterial compliance were associated with PI. Increased arterial stiffness and decreased arterial compliance with resistance training impair buffer function, resulting in increased CBF pulsatility.
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