Critical language and social inquiries, including ELF, are reconceptualizing cross-border communication. However, there has not been enough dialogue between ELF and LPP fields. While traditional LPP frameworks presume “named” distinct languages at issue, ELF researchers focus on the dynamic and fluid nature of supranational language use. LPP is still closely tied to the boundaries set by “nation” and “national language,” and policy-makings are fundamentally local practices. For example, with the Japanese government’s initiatives in promoting EMI (English-medium instruction), an increasing number of universities have introduced EMI programs. Although the first language of a majority of students and teachers is not English, representing a typical ELF situation, the nature of “E” of EMI has not been sufficiently probed. This chapter argues that the diversity is not fully valued because English-only is the dominant policy ideology. The ELF-informed LPP is thus needed to reflect more realistic language use.
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