Revisiting the Rist diagram for predicting operating conditions in blast furnaces with multiple injections

Manuel Bailera*, Takao Nakagaki, Ryoma Kataoka


研究成果: Article査読

14 被引用数 (Scopus)


Background: The Rist diagram is useful for predicting changes in blast furnaces when the operating conditions are modified. In this paper, we revisit this methodology to provide a general model with additions and corrections. The reason for this is to study a new concept proposal that combines oxygen blast furnaces with Power to Gas technology. The latter produces synthetic methane by using renewable electricity and CO 2 to partly replace the fossil input in the blast furnace. Carbon is thus continuously recycled in a closed loop and geological storage is avoided. Methods: The new model is validated with three data sets corresponding to (1) an air-blown blast furnace without auxiliary injections, (2) an air-blown blast furnace with pulverized coal injection and (3) an oxygen blast furnace with top gas recycling and pulverized coal injection. The error is below 8% in all cases. Results: Assuming a 280 t HM/h oxygen blast furnace that produces 1154 kg CO2/t HM, we can reduce the CO 2 emissions between 6.1% and 7.4% by coupling a 150 MW Power to Gas plant. This produces 21.8 kg/t HM of synthetic methane that replaces 22.8 kg/t HM of coke or 30.2 kg/t HM of coal. The gross energy penalization of the CO 2 avoidance is 27.1 MJ/kg CO2 when coke is replaced and 22.4 MJ/kg CO2 when coal is replaced. Considering the energy content of the saved fossil fuel, and the electricity no longer consumed in the air separation unit thanks to the O 2 coming from the electrolyzer, the net energy penalizations are 23.1 MJ/kg CO2 and 17.9 MJ/kg CO2, respectively. Discussion: The proposed integration has energy penalizations greater than conventional amine carbon capture (typically 3.7 - 4.8 MJ/kg CO2), but in return it could reduce the economic costs thanks to diminishing the coke/coal consumption, reducing the electricity consumption in the air separation unit, and eliminating the requirement of geological storage.

ジャーナルOpen Research Europe
出版ステータスPublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 一般


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