Sensor node localization is a crucial aspect of many location-related applications that utilize wireless sensor networks. Among the many studies in the literature, multidimensional scaling-based localization techniques have been proven to be efficient, obtaining high accuracy with lower information requirements. However, when applied to large-scale wireless sensor networks with coverage holes, which are common in many scenarios, such as underground mines, the transmission path can become deviated, degrading the localization performance of this type of connectivity-based technique. Furthermore, in such complex wireless environments, non-line-of-sight reference objects, the presence of obstacles and signal fluctuations change the communication range and make it difficult to obtain an accurate position. In this article, we present a anchor-free localization scheme for large-scale wireless sensor networks called the ranging and multidimensional scaling–based localization scheme. We use ranging and non-line-of-sight error mitigation techniques to estimate accurate distances between each node pair and attempt to find inflection nodes using a novel flooding protocol to correct transmission paths that have become deviated by a coverage hole. Moreover, we replace the singular value decomposition with an iterative maximum gradient descent method to reduce the computational complexity. The results of the simulations and experiments show that our scheme performs well on wireless sensor networks with different coverage holes and is robust to varying network densities.
|International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks
|Published - 2017
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- コンピュータ ネットワークおよび通信