We have measured the components of the throughfall under fir trees (Abies firma) in the field around Mt. Oyama, where the forest appears to be declining, for the period 1994-1998. Exposure experiments of a simulated acid fog to fir twigs were performed under field conditions. There was a similarity between the acid response in the field and that in the laboratory. In both studies, the severe leaching of calcium ions from the needle surface was caused by exposure to acid fog. We also applied acid fog to fir seedlings over 1 year and observed a decrease in the growth of the seedlings due to this application in the dormant season. These results suggest that the severe leaching of calcium ions due to acid fog may cause the deficiency of calcium and be responsible for the decline of the fir trees.
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