Source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Ngoc Tran*, Yusuke Fujii, Md Firoz Khan, To Thi Hien, Tran Hoang Minh, Hiroshi Okochi, Norimichi Takenaka


研究成果: Article査読


The emission sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have not yet been fully identified in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, presenting difficulties to authorities in controlling air pollution efficiently. To address this issue, this study explores the source apportionment of PM2.5 by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model and identifies potential regional sources through the weighted concentration-weighted trajectory (WCWT) model based on the field observation data of PM2.5 in HCMC. 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected in central HCMC for a year (September 2019–August 2020). Herein, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy was used to analyze trace elements, in addition to identifying PM2.5 mass and other chemical species, such as water-soluble ions and carbonaceous species, reported in our former study. The PMF results showed that PM2.5 in HCMC was dominated by anthropogenic-rich sources comprising biomass burning, coal combustion, transportation, and crustal origins (36.4% of PM2.5 mass), followed by secondary ammonium sulfate (18.4%), sea salt (13.7%), road dust (9.6%), and coal and crude oil combustion (9.4%). WCWT results suggested that the geological sources of PM2.5 were mainly from local areas and scattered to the northeast/southwest of HCMC. In addition, the long-range transport of PM2.5 from surrounding countries was revealed during the assembly restriction and lockdown period in 2020. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

ジャーナルAsian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
出版ステータスPublished - 2024 12月

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 環境科学一般
  • 大気科学


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