Source memory and social exchange in young children

Xianwei Meng*, Tatsunori Ishii, Kairi Sugimoto, Shoji Itakura, Katsumi Watanabe


研究成果: Article査読

2 被引用数 (Scopus)


Reciprocal interactions require memories of social exchanges; however, little is known about how we remember social partner actions, especially during childhood when we start forming peer-to-peer relationships. This study examined if the expectation-violation effect, which has been observed in adults’ source memory, exists among 5–6-year-old children. Forty participants played a coin collection game where they either received or lost coins after being shown an individual with a smiling or angry expression. This set-up generated congruent (smiling-giver and angry-taker) versus incongruent (smiling-taker and angry-giver) conditions. In the subsequent tasks, the children were asked to recall which actions accompanied each individual. The children considered the person with incongruent conditions as being stranger than the person with congruent conditions, suggesting that the former violated the children’s emotion-based expectations. However, no heightened source memory was found for the incongruent condition. Instead, children seem to better recognise the action of angry individuals than smiling individuals, suggesting that angry facial expressions are more salient for children’s source memory in a social exchange.

ジャーナルCognitive Processing
出版ステータスPublished - 2021 8月

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 実験心理学および認知心理学
  • 認知神経科学
  • 人工知能


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