We study frustrated spin-1/2 dimer systems in two dimensions with a bilayer structure, where spins are ferromagnetically coupled in dimers. Our model includes frustrated two-spin exchange interactions as well as four-spin interactions. We pay particular attention to the spin nematic phase, which does not exhibit any magnetic (spin-dipole) order but has a spin-quadrupolar long-range order. Employing a perturbation calculation, a mean-field approximation, and a numerical many-variable variational Monte Carlo method, we determine ground-state phase diagrams on various two-dimensional lattices. It is found that the model exhibits the spin nematic phase with ferroquadrupolar order in a wide parameter region, in addition to conventional magnetically ordered phases. In particular, it is shown that even when the four-spin interactions are absent, frustrated two-spin exchange interactions can realize the spin nematic phase as a result of strong interdimer correlations. It is also found that the phase transitions between the spin nematic phase and antiferromagnetic phases can be continuous. Furthermore, we present some exact arguments that various phases including the spin nematic phase and the vector chiral (p-type nematic) phase emerge from an SU(4) symmetric point in the model by the addition of appropriate perturbative interactions. The spin nematic phase generated from the SU(4) point is connected with the spin nematic phase found numerically in the system with only two-spin interactions.
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