Ti–Zr alloys have been investigated as an alternative to commercially pure Ti (c.p.Ti). According to our previous studies on the mechanical properties of Ti–Zr alloys, a Zr proportion in the range of 30–50 mol% has competitive advantages over Ti–10Zr and c.p.Ti. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response to Ti–Zr alloys with different compositions and their surface characteristics. Alloy surfaces are modified by sandblasting and sulfuric acid etching. As a result, similar surface structures are observed for c.p.Ti, Ti–10Zr, and Ti–30Zr, whereas Ti–50Zr does not form a micro-rough structure by the same treatment process. No significant difference is found in the viability of cells on c.p.Ti, Ti–10Zr, and Ti–30Zr, whereas lower cell attachment levels are detected on Ti–50Zr. In summary, Ti–30Zr reliably forms a micro-rough structure, which provides one evidence for its application in a new dental implant material.
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