As is well known, contamination of the silicon surface by trace metal impurities is responsible for detrimental effects in the production of ULSI circuits. An extensive experimental study of the factors influencing the spontaneous metal nucleation from fluoride solutions on Si substrates was undertaken. In acidic media (dilute HF solution) only noble metals can be deposited. The mechanism for the formation of Cu element nuclei was chosen as a model example. The first stage was the appearance of Cu crystals of a nanoscopic scale, observed by AFM microscopy. These nuclei soon induce corrosion pits due to the formation of a short-circuited electrochemical cell. In concentrated NH4F solutions, the open circuit potential (ocp) of Si samples is highly negative and provides an efficient driving force for nucleation even for common metals like Fe. Our results show that the deposition of Fe is hardly observable when Fe only is present, but in the presence of Cu, a catalytic effect is observed leading to the co-deposition of Fe+Cu nuclei. In all cases surface defects on the Si substrate are generated by the corrosion pits.
|Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
|Published - 2003 11月 15
|International Symposium on Materials Processing for Nonstruct (MPND2001) - Kyoto, Japan
継続期間: 2001 9月 16 → 2001 9月 19
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