Objective(s): To benefit from reproduction and deal with challenges in the environmental conditions, animals must adapt internal physiology to maximize the reproduction rate. Maladaptive variations in the neurochemical systems and reproductive system can lead to manifestation of several significant mammalian reprocesses, including mammalian ovarian lifespan. RFamide-related peptide (RFRP, Rfrp), mammalian orthologues of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), which is a regulator to prevent the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neural activity, is known to be related to reproductive traits. This review aimed to summarize recent five-year observations to outline historic insights and novel perspectives into the functions of RFRPs in coding the mammalian reproductive physiology, especially highlight recent advances in the impact on RFRPs in regulating mammalian ovary lifespan. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the recent five-year important findings of RFRP system involved in mammalian ovary development. Data for this review were collected from Google Scholar and PubMed using the RFRP keyword combined with the keywords related to physiological or pathological reproductive functions. Results: Recent discoveries are focused on three major fronts in research on RFRP role in female reproduction including reproductive functions, energy balance, and stress regulation. The roles of RFRPs in various development phases of mammal reproduction including prepuberty, puberty, estrous cycle, pregnancy, milking, menopause, and/or ovarian diseases have been shown. Conclusion: Overall, these recent advances demonstrate that RFRPs serve as critical mediators in mammalian ovarian development.
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