The extract of compost from fermented marine animals and thermophiles, including Bacillaceae, confers health benefits as a feed additive for fish and pigs. However, little research has explored how such compost extracts affect the physiological functions of the animals. In this study, the physiological effects of oral administration of the compost extract on the liver and muscle of rats are evaluated. After long-term administration of the compost extract in rats fed with either a normal diet or a high-fat diet over 3 months, accumulation of lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde, a marker of peroxidation, in the livers was reduced. Under such conditions, the unsaturated fatty acid composition in the liver was not significantly different in the rats fed either with or without the compost extract. In contrast, analyzes of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) revealed that free-radical-scavenging activity was increased in the livers of rats fed with the compost extract, although the extract itself had little of this activity. Glutathione, an antioxidant, was slightly increased following compost exposure. In addition, the levels of glutamate and glutamine, sources of glutathione, were slightly raised. Such a tendency was also observed in the muscle. Thus, thermophile-fermented compost can be a fermented feed additive to prevent peroxidation in the liver and muscle, and the effects of this additive may, in part, be associated with the retention of antioxidants and free amino acids within the organs.
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