Background: Weight misperception adversely affects health-related quality of life (HRQol); however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between weight misperception and muscle mass. This study aimed to examine the relationship of weight misperception with low muscle mass using skeletal muscle index (SMI) estimated by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) among community-dwelling Japanese. Methods: Participants were 525 Japanese individuals aged 40–91 years old (male 89, female 436). Misperception was calculated by subtracting measured value from self-reported weight, presented as a percentage and categorized into tertiles based on sex (under-reporters, acceptable reporters, and over-reporters). Appendicular lean mass was estimated using MF-BIA, and low muscle mass was defined using SMI values of 7.0 and 5.7 kg/m2 for males and females, respectively, based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019 consensus. We evaluated the association between prevalence of low muscle mass and weight misperception (under-reporters and over-reporters) using multivariate logistic regression including covariate. Results: In total, 9.3% (49/525) of participants had low muscle mass. After adjusting for covariates, prevalence of low muscle mass was higher among over-reporters than acceptable-reporters (odds ratio [OR]; 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.03–5.44). Additionally, sensitivity analysis was performed on females, which confirmed that the prevalence of low muscle mass was higher in over-reporters than in acceptable-reporters (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.18–9.12). Conclusion: Weight misperception was significantly correlated with low muscle mass, especially in over-reporters.
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